This function draws observations in an adjacency matrix according to a given network sampling design.

  clusters = NULL,
  covariates = list(),
  similarity = missSBM:::l1_similarity,
  intercept = 0



The N x N adjacency matrix of the network to sample.


The sampling design used to observe the adjacency matrix, see details.


The sampling parameters (adapted to each sampling, see details).


An optional clustering membership vector of the nodes. Only necessary for block samplings.


An optional list with M entries (the M covariates). If the covariates are node-centered, each entry of covariates. must be a size-N vector; if the covariates are dyad-centered, each entry of covariates must be N x N matrix.


An optional function to compute similarities between node covariates. Default is missSBM:::l1_similarity, that is, -abs(x-y). Only relevant when the covariates are node-centered.


An optional intercept term to be added in case of the presence of covariates. Default is 0.


an adjacency matrix with the same dimension as the input, yet with additional NAs.


Internal functions use future_lapply, so set your plan to 'multisession' or 'multicore' to use several cores/workers. The list of parameters control tunes more advanced features, such as the initialization, how covariates are handled in the model, and the variational EM algorithm:

  • "useCov": logical. If covariates is not null, should they be used for the for the SBM inference (or just for the sampling)? Default is TRUE.

  • "clusterInit": Initial method for clustering: either a character ("spectral") or a list with length(vBlocks) vectors, each with size ncol(adjacencyMatrix), providing a user-defined clustering. Default is "spectral".

  • "similarity": An R x R -> R function to compute similarities between node covariates. Default is missSBM:::l1_similarity, that is, -abs(x-y). Only relevant when the covariates are node-centered (i.e. covariates is a list of size-N vectors).

  • "threshold": V-EM algorithm stops stop when an optimization step changes the objective function or the parameters by less than threshold. Default is 1e-2.

  • "maxIter": V-EM algorithm stops when the number of iteration exceeds maxIter. Default is 50.

  • "fixPointIter": number of fix-point iterations in the V-E step. Default is 3.

  • "exploration": character indicating the kind of exploration used among "forward", "backward", "both" or "none". Default is "both".

  • "iterates": integer for the number of iterations during exploration. Only relevant when exploration is different from "none". Default is 1.

  • "trace": logical for verbosity. Default is TRUE.

The different sampling designs are split into two families in which we find dyad-centered and node-centered samplings. See doi: 10.1080/01621459.2018.1562934 for a complete description.

  • Missing at Random (MAR)

    • "dyad": parameter = p = Prob(Dyad(i,j) is observed)

    • "node": parameter = p = Prob(Node i is observed)

    • "covar-dyad": parameter = beta in R^M, such that Prob(Dyad (i,j) is observed) = logistic(parameter' covarArray (i,j, .))

    • "covar-node": parameter = nu in R^M such that Prob(Node i is observed) = logistic(parameter' covarMatrix (i,)

    • "snowball": parameter = number of waves with Prob(Node i is observed in the 1st wave)

  • Missing Not At Random (MNAR)

    • "double-standard": parameter = (p0,p1) with p0 = Prob(Dyad (i,j) is observed | the dyad is equal to 0), p1 = Prob(Dyad (i,j) is observed | the dyad is equal to 1)

    • "block-node": parameter = c(p(1),...,p(Q)) and p(q) = Prob(Node i is observed | node i is in cluster q)

    • "block-dyad": parameter = c(p(1,1),...,p(Q,Q)) and p(q,l) = Prob(Edge (i,j) is observed | node i is in cluster q and node j is in cluster l)

    • "degree": parameter = c(a,b) and logit(a+b*degree(i)) = Prob(Node i is observed | Degree(i))


## SBM parameters N <- 300 # number of nodes Q <- 3 # number of clusters pi <- rep(1,Q)/Q # block proportion theta <- list(mean = diag(.45,Q) + .05 ) # connectivity matrix ## simulate an unidrected binary SBM without covariate sbm <- sbm::sampleSimpleSBM(N, pi, theta) ## Sample network data # some sampling design and their associated parameters sampling_parameters <- list( "dyad" = .3, "node" = .3, "double-standard" = c(0.4, 0.8), "block-node" = c(.3, .8, .5), "block-dyad" = theta$mean, "degree" = c(.01, .01), "snowball" = c(2,.1) ) observed_networks <- list() for (sampling in names(sampling_parameters)) { observed_networks[[sampling]] <- missSBM::observeNetwork( adjacencyMatrix = sbm$networkData, sampling = sampling, parameters = sampling_parameters[[sampling]], cluster = sbm$memberships ) }